Diposkan pada Short Film

Value and the creative and cultural industries

Within cultural industries, goods and services are largely symbolic. They are based around the communication of ideas, rather than functional value.

Activities that produce films are part of the cultural industries. Those such as fashion design, advertising and architecture, where there is symbolic content, but where functionality comes first, are not considered to be part of the cultural industries, but are part of the wider creative industries.

So what is culture’s relationship to value, and the consumer market? There is a long-standing debate about culture as a public good, and the uplifting role of art and its civilising effect on society. Does treating creative cultural production as a commodity allow business and management to encroach on cultural life? Culture does produce value.

David Throsby (2001) presented a definition incorporating the issue of ‘use value’. This brought in consideration of both the economic and cultural sides of the cultural industries. He argues that:

  1. the activities of the cultural industries involve some form of creativity in their production
  2. the cultural industries are concerned with the generation and communication of symbolic meaning
  3. their output includes some form of intellectual property.

Individual productions achieve this to varying extents, but these industries should properly be defined within the cultural sector because generating and communicating meaning is the main output of each.

Economic production is also the production of value. As the practices of business and markets take hold, might the non-financial value of ‘culture’ and ‘art’ be lost?

© The Open University (2015)

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membingkai jejak sejarah film di Makassar

Film-film produksi Makassar pernah berjaya di jajaran papan atas industri perfilman nasional era tahun 70 – 80-an. Beberapa karya sineas Makassar yang booming saat itu di antaranya Pendekar Sumur Tujuh, Sanrego, dan Senja di Pantai Losari. Di masa kejayaan industri film Makassar itu muncul satu sosok seniman Makassar dengan “aroma semerbak” bernama Rahman Arge.

 Memasuki era tahun 90, dunia film Makassar menjadi lesu sejalan dengan lunglainya industri film nasional. Sebagian besar pelaku perfilm-an beralih ke layar kaca (pada masa itu stasiun tv hanya TVRI). Selepas produksi film Lelaki dari Tanjung Bira yang di rilis tahun 1992, hampir tidak terdengar lagi gaung produksi film dari Makassar. Dunia film Makassar pun “mati suri”, suram dan tidak berdaya.

Awal tahun 2000, produksi film di Makassar kembali bermunculan namun sebagian besar digarap dalam format Indie. Rilisnya pun hanya memenuhi kanal Youtube. Tahun 2003, sebuah stasiun televisi lokal yaitu Fajar TV, bekerjasama dengan Ichwan Persada, mencoba menggugah pelaku industri film lokal dengan program televisi, “Sinemania”, namun tidak memberi pengaruh sama sekali.

Hampir satu dekade kondisi itu berjalan hingga suatu ketika sebuah karya film layar lebar pada tahun 2010 berjudul Aliguka, mulai membuka ruang. Kendati belum terhitung komersil, film “idealis” besutan Arman Dewarti yang digarap dengan biaya minim ini mulai menjawab dominasi ruang kreatif bagi sederet produksi film nasional yang selama ini identik dengan Jakarta, Bandung atau pulau Jawa dan sekitarnya. Dunia film dibuat tersentak, ada film yang muncul dari Makassar.

Film Aliguka dikemas bernuansa Makassar kental dengan gaya lokal yang khas. Film berdurasi sekitar 70 menit ini merekam berbagai realita paradoksal kehidupan warga kota, mulai dari rumah susun kumuh yang sumpek, Perjuangan kaum miskin kota hingga kehidupan malam para pelacur di kota ini. Aliguka dianggap sebagai awal kebangkitan dunia per-filman Makassar yang sekian lama berkarat.

Meski tidak terlalu populer, gaung film Aliguka mampu memberikan pengaruh terhadap seorang sineas ternama indonesia, Riri Riza untuk balik ke kampung halamannya. Ia kemudian membangun komunitas Rumata’ dan membuka peluang untuk ikut mendukung bangkitnya produksi film lokal di Makassar. Sejak itu, produksi film-film berkualitas mulai bermunculan. Banyak sineas keluar dari sarangnya.
Catatan prestasi produksi film lokal yang mengagumkan mulai ditoreh ketika seorang sutradara muda Makassar, Andrew Parinussa menjuarai sebuah festival film internasional di jepang tahun 2013. Film pendek garapannya yang berjudul Adoption, sukses menyingkirkan 11.657 karya film dari seluruh dunia dan berhak meraih penghargaan “first prize”. Makassar masuk dalam 6 film terbaik dunia.

Meski tidak terlalu populer, gaung film Aliguka mampu memberikan pengaruh terhadap seorang sineas ternama indonesia, Riri Riza untuk balik ke kampung halamannya. Ia kemudian membangun komunitas Rumata’ dan membuka peluang untuk ikut mendukung bangkitnya produksi film lokal di Makassar. Sejak itu, produksi film-film berkualitas mulai bermunculan. Banyak sineas keluar dari sarangnya.
Catatan prestasi produksi film lokal yang mengagumkan mulai ditoreh ketika seorang sutradara muda Makassar, Andrew Parinussa menjuarai sebuah festival film internasional di jepang tahun 2013. Film pendek garapannya yang berjudul Adoption, sukses menyingkirkan 11.657 karya film dari seluruh dunia dan berhak meraih penghargaan “first prize”. Makassar masuk dalam 6 film terbaik dunia.
Setahun dari kesuksesan di Jepang, menyusul film pendek karya sineas muda Makassar lainnya, Aditya Ahmad berjudul “Sepatu Baru” berhasil memenangkan penghargaan internasional “Special Mention” untuk Film Pendek Terbaik kategori Generation KPlus di Berlinale, sebuah perhelatan Festival Film Internasional ke-64 yang diselenggarakan di Berlin, Jerman, 16 Februari 2014.
Tahun 2014 merupakan fase dimana produksi film Makassar sudah mulai menemukan kembali nafasnya. Beberapa produksi film dari sineas Makassar yang mendapat apresiasi dan penghargaan berskala nasional.

Pada masa transisi itu, sebuah produksi film ber-genre drama fiksi dari kelompok Art2tonic dengan judul “Bombe” akhirnya berhasil menerobos industri film komersil dengan menggandeng jaringan bioskop nasional, XXI. Kendati kental nuansa politik, film Bombe mendapat sambutan yang luar biasa dari masyarakat Sulawesi Selatan. Art2tonic yang digawangi sutradara bernama Rere ini sukses melepas dahaga panjang industri film di Makassar dan membuat produksi film lokal menjadi tuan rumah di negerinya sendiri.
Art2tonic tercatat sebagai pembesut film lokal yang paling subur di Indonesia Timur. Deretan produksi filmnya antara lain Bombe, Bombe2, Dumba-dumba, Sumiati dan terakhir, Cinta Rasa Coklat, semuanya mendapat respon yang luar biasa dan mampu menembus pasar hingga ke pulau Jawa ditengah gempuran film barat dan film nasional.

Tahun 2016, sebuah perusahaan film lokal Makassar, Makkita Cinema Production, juga berhasil menciptakan terobosan baru dengan besutan film yang berjudul “Uang Panai”. Film ber-genre drama komedi yang mengusung tema kehidupan sosial masyarakat Sulsel ini mencatat sejarah baru dalam industri film komersil di Makassar. Bekerjasama dengan jaringan XXI, 21 kota di Indonesia menayangkan film ini dimana sebagian besar bioskopnya harus membuka dua layar lantaran jumlah penonton yang membludak. Film Uang Panaik yang di produseri oleh Amril Nuryan ini melibatkan penyanyi populer Katon Bagaskara sebagai artis pendukungnya. Sejak dirilis 25 Agustus 2016, film ini sukses mengangkangi beberapa film nasional.

Industri film Makassar yang mulai menggeliat dan sukses menguasai pasarnya dikandang sendiri, kini telah membuka mata para pelaku industri kreatif di Indonesia bahwa industri per-filman Makassar sudah bangun dari tidurnya yang panjang. Ketika jalan dan ruangnya sudah terbuka, dunia per-filman Indonesia bersiap untuk menikmati kembali serbuan warna kreatifitas para sineas Makassar yang pada umumnya memiliki karakter khas yang kental dengan kekuatan lokalnya. Ewako.

sumber : http://www.kabarkami.com/ketika-produksi-film-makassar-bangun-dari-tidur-panjangnya.html

Diposkan pada Rules of Making, Short Film

How to Write an Effective Screenplay for a Short Film

The most common mistake inexperienced filmmakers make is their story is weak and therefore their film is weak. This is because they spend little or no time writing a screenplay as they find it bewildering.

Steps

  1. 1
    Short vs Feature film. Short films and feature films are very much alike but also different. The main differences are feature films are made up of many scenes which give you the space to develop more complex characters and face an increasing array of obstacles. Technically much is the same when you start out with your idea however you may consider doing a treatment after your outline and using beat sheets to help you with structure.

Method1

pre screenplay

  1. 1
    Read screenplays. Before you begin writing a screenplay it is a good idea to read and analyse screenplays to your favorite films and similar films to yours.
  2. 2

    Set a goal. By breaking down screenwriting into manageable chunks and working out a deadline it will give you motivation.

    • Time. A micro-budget short film should take a few weeks to conceive and edit. Don’t feel too pressured though as this may put you off instead just focus on writing 10 minutes a day.
  3. 3
    Calm environment. Work in a calming environment.

Method2

Get an idea

  1. 1
    Choose a Film Title. The right film title is crucial as it will make it easier to market your screenplay and convey to the audience what the film is about. This can be established at anytime of the process.
  2. 2
    Key Theme. If you are unsure what the theme is, it’s the key lesson the protagonist has learnt by the end of the film.
  3. 3

    Formulate a premise. Write a short sentence (15 words or less) of the fundamental concept which drives the plot.

    • Whose story is it?
    • What do they want?
    • What’s stopping them getting it?
    • What’s at stake?
    • The premise for E.T. could be ‘A lonely boy is befriended by an alien’.
    • Seek feedback on your premise before you develop your film.

 

Method3

Development

  1. 1
    What do you have available? By working out what actors, props and locations are available locally you can make your film cheaply and easily.
  2. 2

    Character development. This is an important part of development. The key areas of developing a character are:

    • 1.Name
    • 2.Appearance
    • 3.Traits. Sociological, Psychological and physical.
  3. 3

    Character arc.

    • 1.Heroes quest, on the way he faces his worst fears.
    • 2.Bonding. At first two people who have to work together despise each other, yet they learn to live together and finally they love each other.
  4. 4

    . Dis-functional to Functional

    • What personal experiences do you have that you can apply to the characters?
  5. 5
    Where? (ex. location)
  6. 6
    What? (ex. theme, format, genre, characters goal, worst and best events that could occur)
  7. 7
    Why? USP(unique selling position)
  8. 8
    When? (time setting for story, deadline for finished film, schedule)
  9. 9
    If stuck. Watch a couple of short films and analyse using these key areas.
  10. 10
    Brainstorm the beginning and end of the film. Do this as mind maps. Then start filling in what happens in between, to make sure it doesn’t become too complicated start at the end and work to the beginning, as the middle is usually harder.

Method4

Outline

  1. 1

    Create a template for the outline: (Title) is a short (genre) of (how many minutes?) aimed at (target audience) set in (location), (premise)… (Write the action that takes place in the film in the third person in a few hundred words).

    • Redraft outline a couple of times.
    • Get feedback on your outline.

Method5

Write your script

  1. 1

    Write a script. Write for 10 minutes each day.

    • Structure. There are different ways of structuring a short film, but most importantly keep it simple, so you follow the journey of the protagonist and have no subplots. For example you could follow the three act structure (beginning, middle and end), or you could structure it like a joke following a moment in the protagonists life which ends on a punchline (twist).
    • Action. Keep this simple. Don’t write camera angles, instead infer them.
    • Dialogue. Add dialogue in after you have written the rest of the script, this way it will be more visual. Keep it simple and remember that it should not sound like real conversations.
  2. 2

Method6

Feature film differences

  1. 1
    Outline. Should be no longer than a couple of pages long. write a paragraph for each scene.

Method7

Redrafting

  1. 1
    Remember this quote: Ernest Hemingway “The first draft of anything is shit.”
  2. 2
    A common mistake with short film scripts is that they are overwritten and underdeveloped, only do a couple of drafts.
  3. 3
    Get feedback, create a list of key issues raised.
  4. 4
    Put your screenplay aside for a week.
  5. 5
    Read through. Get some people together to read through your script.
  6. 6
    Look at each element separately: re-draft dialogue; re-draft action; address structural problems.

Sample Script and Outline

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Tips

  • Make a screenplay about something you are passionate about.
  • When casting, remember this; NEVER pick someone just because of his or her looks, or vice versa! Always choose based on their ACTING because you are looking for ACTORS not MODELS.
  • If you are finding it challenging you could work on it with others.
  • A problem with most film writers is motivation. If you find a theme/topic you really like it should be easier to write.
  • Show; don’t tell. Films are a visual medium.
  • If you are afraid of asking for feedback, it could help if you write down the worst things the other person could say.

Warnings

  • The most common pitfall first time screenwriters make is they don’t spend enough time developing the script and then to compensate, they tend to overwrite the script.

Things You’ll Need

  • A notepad, keep this with you at all times. To add and recall details.
  • Pencil, Colored Pens – to mark out corrections/alterations.
  • Screenwriting software, e.g Final Draft – used by professional screenwriters